# COMPUTERS IN GEOLOGY

## Sketching

What is found here?

Clip art versus figures with links
20 mm clip art for Microsoft Office
Marginalia for posters in Microsoft Publisher
Table for scale models
Figures with repeated elements
An example of a structured diagram
Figures referenced in the Grimoire of Geological Computing

This table below may have a polygon representing a coal fired powerstation and industrial complex. The arrows figuratively representing the transport of materials to and from that complex and have links to discussion websites. The line above the power station is marked up with MathML but at this stage I can't get it to run with Internet Explorer (for fuller expanation see page 507 of Ray & Ray 2002: HTML and XHTML, Sybex Inc., Alameda, California).

Conversley if you use Internet Explorer 11, Chrome or Opera as your web-browser you may see the formula but not the figures. This illustrates how the development of vector based graphics for hyper-text transport protocols (for example web-pages) is still in its infancy compared to the transfer of raster imagery, such as photographs which appear the same in any browser. The advantage to geologists with vector graphics is that it shows boundary relationships, such as the stratigraphic diagram on the splash page of this web-site. Diagrams in vector graphics can be more efficient to transfer over the Internet which is an advantage in remote locations or for use with mobile computers, both situations common for field geologists. I use figures sketched in vector graphics as either clipart for use in presentations or maps; and live figures on web pages which include hot links and animations of the different components. To test how the standard is changing:

1. If you see a line drawing of a factory, your browser supports VML, used with Microsoft Office 2010 drawings.
2. If you see a red box here, your browser supports the HTML5 <svg> element first implemented into Internet Explorer 9. The Google browser Chrome 18.0 also shows the red rectangle, even when running on Android 4.0.4 operating system on my Telstra T-HUB2.

For example I can drag the red rectangle from Internet Explorer 11 into Microsoft Word 2016, keeping its proportions and colours exactly. However all the older VML drawings are invisible in Internet Explorer 11 and I get nothing when I paste into Microsoft Word 2016. When I next use this clip-art I will convert it to SVG so we can go forward at least with Chrome and Internet Explorer.

active figure clip art warm hot

In the table above, the power station can be cut and pasted into any Microsoft Office software. The associated Vector Markup Language (VML) elements have all the necessary size information embedded in XML coding, that means it keeps its initial size and shape, but can be resized interactively in the application. The arrows demonstrate the intelligent figure application. The arrow itself has been created once in the header of this page, and then re-used with different colors, position, text and links. The form shown here is a storyboard for animating, in that these changes can also be made interactively giving you an opportunity to cartoon geologcial processes as well as settings. Again the splash page demonstrates this with the different formations being highlighted as you pass a cursor across them. The splash page also demonstrates the Raphaël Javascript library which provides VML or an alternative Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) depending on your browser. Microsoft Internet Explorer version 9 is intended to browse SVG but for the time being I am sticking to VML for compatibility with Microsoft Office.

### 20 mm clip art for Microsoft Office

The clip-art below, set at a nominal height of 20mm, is vector-based rather than a raster image. That is it is re-drawn each time Microsoft Internet Explorer is refreshed, so there are no edgies or dithering on the shapes or text. These stand-alone VML shape elements can be copied and pasted into any Microsoft Office document where they can be re-sized, stretched, re-coloured and altered in any way. This is because VML is the native drawing language within the Microsoft Office suite. The shapes will only render in an Internet Explorer browser, but I expect in other browsers which do not support VML, if you copy the text into Microsoft Office you will get the drawing as well.

FACTORY    HOT    WARM    N-S TRESTLE    E-W TRESTLE    BFmC

### Marginalia for posters in Microsoft Publisher

Having demonstrated the repeating elements in the previous section, I can extend that to the integration of an extensible markup language or xml file viewed via the extensible stylesheet file magazine.xsl, as well as the other extensible scripting language (*.xsl) files:

All of the above should also be valid XML documents and can be viewed by the standard Microsoft Explorer viewer, and in the following section will be used to produce a diagram with structured elements in Vector Markup Lnaguage (VML). However, for this section I will introduce the output of the thumbs.xsl file which is a table of scale model manufacturers against available scales to be included as marginalia in a map for flood and bushfire planning. The occurrence chart is one of the most critical diagrams used in geology, normally showing fossil names but can be used for any type of facies to demonstrate at least the "Law of Faunal Assemblages" and the "Law of Faunal Succession". The case here is about the most generally applicable I can think of for South Australian use, though it is also an example for archeological use elsewhere.

This is an older version of the table (19th September 2012) referenced in the 'making a poster' section in the Grimoire of Geological Computing. It allows those people without Internet Explorer and the SAX compiler that comes with it to get an idea of what can be done.
thumbs2 x thumb : 1 x man1 x thumb : 1 x manmen
436'3"5'4"6'6'8"7'2"4'2"4'7"5'4"5'5"model maker6'6'4"7'3"5'215
-----------www.airfix.comX-----
X-----X----www.bburago.com------
-----X----Xwww.billings.com------
XX-------X-www.hotworksracing.com------
-----------www.hornby.com--X---
--X--------www.revell.de-X--XX
---X-------www.scalextric.com------
---X---XX--www.siku.de--XX--
-----------www.walthers.com--X---
-X---------www.ixomodels.com------
1/181/241/251/321/361/401/431/501/551/641/65fractional scale1/721/761/87 1/1201/1441/1200

On the archeological use of this table: toys or personal artefacts are often buried or lost in tellus and the scale and origin can identify the cultural setting. This diagram is ready to go for that use. Just take a copy the two files thumbs.xsl and thumbs.xml. Change the names of provenance of the toys, and the approriate scales in the thumbs.xml file (Microsoft Notepad will do), and then implement the two files as in the first part of this file (View > Source)and you will have your own occurrence diagram. As far as I know there is no limit on the number of manufacturers, and with some study the number of columns or another measure can be substituted into the thumbs.xsl file.

### Figures with repeated elements

Having demonstrated the repeating elements in the first section, I can extend that to the integration of an extensible markup language or xml file viewed via the extensible stsylsheet file magazine.xsl, two other extensible scripting language (*.xsl) files: header.xsl, my2ndxsl.xsl, and my1stxsl.xsl, both of which should also be valid XML documents and can be viewed by the standard Microsoft Explorer viewer; and VML to produce a diagram with structured elements. The section Figures referenced in the Grimoire of Geological Computing is an example of a the file being edited notepad style.

#### Figures referenced in the Grimoire of Geological Computing

This figure started out as a seating plan for the Broadview Freemasons Centre, Broadview, South Australia; but it is easier to do these in Golden Software MapViewer and export as Adobe Portable Document (PDF) format. In contrast to the previous examples for structured figures, this example has each shape specified, by coordinates, in this HTML file, with the size and outline of the shape made consistent by registering a shape type in the first part of this page. Try the Internet Explorer menu command 'Page | View source' to see these. If you try to copy this figure into a document such as a Microsoft Word file, the figure collapses into a series of points without any structure.

3 2 1 4 9 8 7 6 5 E D C B A s r x x x

This next table is intended to replace the table of algorithms in the Grimoire of Geological Computing. It demonstrates a table extracted from an Thomson EndNote file grimoire.xml which contains a selected bibliography from that e-book. The intent with the XSL(T) translation file algorithm.xsl is to select only those references which have annotations regarding algorithms used for processing. Ultimately there will be a table of references to answer the question: "What can I do with the geoscience data I have?". This is based on the same Web 2.0/HTML5 technology used in the thumb.xml example above but altered to use Thompson EndNote format as with legal.xml used in the Matthew 7:26 demonstration. This table also uses the SAX compiler inbuilt in Internet Explorer, but in this case an older version of the table is provided for those readers using other HTTP browsers.

This is an older version of the table (19th September 2012) to replace the Algorithms table in the Grimoire of Geological Computing. It allows those people without Internet Explorer and the SAX compiler that comes with it to get an idea of what can be done.
geophysical measurement
category : 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.59.69.79.89.9
studies : 264 265 263 265 201 209 250 225 48 265 225 200 201 209 250 264 265 261 39 264 265 225 263 262
topics :
casedocument for the case study number
200Seismic surveys and marine life: Why does the 'noise' mask the science and the industry experience?, PESA News Resources, pages 36-41.
201Early dipmeters and new tricks with old dips - part 1, PESA News Resources, pages 26-29.
209Early dipmeters and new tricks with old dips - part 2, PESA News Resources, pages 78-85.
223Numerical modelling of the western Hodgkinson Province, northeast Queensland: implications for gold mineralisation, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, pages 27-47.
225New technologies and techniques in land seismic acquisition, PESA News Resources, pages 71-72.
236Working with your own data: a rational approach to a digital learning and research framework for Australian geology students, 1st Australian Geoscience Teaching Workshop, pages 28.
249Clustering of cumulative grainsize distribution curves for shallow-marine samples with software program CLARA., Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, pages 503-519.
250Geoelectrical imaging of a thick regolith developed on ultramafic rocks: groundwater influence., Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, pages 773-781.
261Assessing the recent (1834 - 2002) morphological evolution of a rapidly prograding delta within a GIS framework: Macquarie rivulet delta, Lake Illawarra, New South Wales, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, pages 1047-1056.
262Trimble increases gold mine productivity in Africa - ""There's gold in those hills" - and Trimble GPS is helping find it., Technology & more, pages 4.
263The story of a volcano, using Trimble GPS to monitor Mount St. Helens., Technology & more, pages 6-7.
264GPS database key to avalanche predictions, Technology & more, pages 20.
265Mapping the Nation's treasures, Technology & more, pages 4.
266Trimble 3D scanner probes Ramses' royal tomb, Technology & more, pages 16 to 17.
39The Digital Revolution, Position, pages 66-68.
48Thermodynamic modelling of lode gold deposits in Archaen granitoids: Woodcutters and Lady Bountiful mines, Kalgoorlie region, Western Australia., Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, pages 431-438.

This cross-reference of bibliographic records was enclosed in a Thomson EndNote database (lastly: c2008003.enl) which uses the EndNote XML export (version 14.0) file . It relies on additional XML elements added to the research notes field of a bibliographic record, nominating the categories to which the reference is relevant. These categories are from the Field Geologist's Manual (Monograph 9, AusIMM) and re-used in Table 11 (review of computing application against geophysical measurement) of the Grimoire of Geological Computing. The XML elements are an agglomeration of examples from Ray and Ray 2002; with Howlett and Dunmall 2000. I am still waiting on an available and published XML grammar that is geologically succinct with free documentation to replace these elements.