# COMPUTERS IN GEOLOGY

## Sketching

What is found here?
Figures with repeated elements
An example of a structured diagram
Figures referenced in the Grimoire of Geological Computing
with some explanation of
20 mm clip art for Microsoft Office
Clip art versus figures with links
Clip art in Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 and earlier
Clip art for Microsoft Office 2016 and later
Low-tech alternatives to Falcon microgravity surveys
Marginalia for posters in Microsoft Publisher
as well as outlines of the activities
Children's play for measurement and perspective
Make tables of occurrences for archaeological artefacts
Using WingtraOne for wildlife monitoring
Publishing geology articles
with tables for
published case studies and geophysical topics by measurement category
scale models by scale and vendor
main article Microsoft 10: a Cloudless bushwalk with 3D printing link is the bibliography

This table below may have a polygon representing a coal fired powerstation and industrial complex. The arrows figuratively representing the transport of materials to and from that complex and have links to discussion websites. The line above the power station is marked up with MathML but at this stage I can't get it to run with Internet Explorer (for an explanation see page 507 of Ray & Ray 2002: HTML and XHTML, Sybex Inc., Alameda, California).

Conversley if you use Internet Explorer 11, Chrome or Opera or even now MS Envy as your web-browser you may see the formula but not the figures. This illustrates how the development of vector based graphics for hyper-text transport protocols (for example web-pages) is still in its infancy compared to the transfer of raster imagery, such as photographs which appear the same in any browser. The advantage to geologists with vector graphics is that it shows boundary relationships, such as the stratigraphic diagram on the splash page of this web-site. Diagrams in vector graphics can be more efficient to transfer over the Internet which is an advantage in remote locations or for use with mobile computers, both situations common for field geologists. I use figures sketched in vector graphics as either clipart for use in presentations or maps; and live figures on web pages which include hot links and animations of the different components. To test how the standard is changing:

1. If you see a drawn mathematical formula, your browser support mathML of the era of Microsoft Office 2007.
2. If you see a line drawing of a factory, your browser supports VML, used with Office 2010 drawings.
3. If you see a red box here, your browser supports the HTML5 <svg> element first implemented into Internet Explorer 9. The Google browser Chrome 18.0 also shows the red rectangle, even when running on Android 4.0.4 operating system on my Telstra T-HUB2.
Microsoft Office 2016 art for browsers: Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 and earlier, browsed: active figure geology model α geology model ω Microsoft Internet Explorer 11 and later Microsoft Edge Google Chrome 18.0 and later Opera Microsoft Office 2010 clip art Microsoft Office 2007 equations and clip art Microsoft Office 2003 clip art warm hot

### Clip art in Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 and earlier

main article Geological Databases: not set in stone link is the bibliography

In the table above, the power station can be cut and pasted into any Microsoft Office software coeval with MS Internet Explorer 9 or earlier. The associated Vector Markup Language (VML) elements have all the necessary size information embedded in XML coding, that means it keeps its initial size and shape, but can be resized interactively in the application. The arrows demonstrate the intelligent figure application. The arrow itself has been created once in the header of this page, and then re-used with different colors, position, text and links. The form shown here is a storyboard for animating, in that these changes can also be made interactively giving you an opportunity to cartoon geological processes as well as settings. Again the splash page demonstrates this with the different formations being highlighted as you pass a cursor across them. The splash page also demonstrates the Raphaël Javascript library which provides VML or an alternative Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) depending on your browser. Microsoft Internet Explorer version 9 is intended to browse SVG but for the time being I am sticking to VML for compatibility with Microsoft Office.

#### 20 mm clip art for Microsoft Office

The clip-art below, set at a nominal height of 20mm, is vector-based rather than a raster image. That is it is re-drawn each time Microsoft Internet Explorer is refreshed, so there are no edgies or dithering on the shapes or text. These stand-alone VML shape elements can be copied and pasted into any Microsoft Office document where they can be re-sized, stretched, re-coloured and altered in any way. This is because VML is the native drawing language within the Microsoft Office suite. The shapes will only render in an Internet Explorer browser, but I expect in other browsers which do not support VML, if you copy the text into Microsoft Office you will get the drawing as well.

FACTORY    HOT    WARM    N-S TRESTLE    E-W TRESTLE    BFmC

### Clip art for Microsoft Office 2016 and later

main article Geology Supermodels fight FUD with fun link is the bibliography

From the example above I can drag the red rectangle from Internet Explorer 11 into Microsoft Word 2016, keeping its proportions and colours exactly. However all the older VML drawings are invisible in Internet Explorer 11 and I get nothing when I paste into Microsoft Word 2016. When I next use this clip-art I will convert it to SVG so we can go forward at least with Chrome and Internet Explorer. In this section is a more complex svg element demonstration with the geological theme described in the Low-tech alternatives to Falcon microgravity surveys subsection. View the source code for the compatibility with different browsers.

Disappointingly, the composite table, for an occurrence diagram of the section Marginalia for posters in Microsoft Publisher, is not copying across in Microsoft Word 2016 from Internet Explorer. To preserve the formatting even for plain fomatted text; rather than resorting to text paste which loses all formatting, use Microsoft Envy. However, as at 2019 while I have got the ECMAscript in Envy to composite a table, it will not read the thumbs.dtd file. Thankfully (for Corel Corporation and me), I found Word Perfect X8 does everything I want in a standard copy, and in fact it is too easy to resize and move the svg element, so be careful!

#### Low-tech alternatives to Falcon microgravity surveys

If you have been have been looking for more approachable alternatives to Falcon or the more expensive seismic reflection. A poster at the Australian Geological Convention (Hobart, February 2004) introduced me to the paleo-geographic work done by PIRSA in the Eucla Basin to the west of Port Augusta. Then at the SA Explorers conference Chris Drown, the exploration manager, with Adelaide Resources Limited, explained how they had used micro-topography from radar images taken from the shuttle to identify a series of Eocene strand lines, that is the barrier islands of sand dunes like at the Coorong. This recalled several papers I had seen at the Geological Convention on the analysis of modern estuaries on the east coast of Australia, such as Lake Illawarra. This general esturarine model struck me as an analogue for the lithological facies within the Leigh Creek coal lobes with basically a triangular geographical relationship of beach dunes (cleaner sands), river mud flats (sandy shales) estuarine forest (coal), surrounding a clear water estuary of very fine muds (shales).

My memory of the exploration of Leigh Creek and the Flinders Ranges is poor and so there is probably something that discredits this but I was wondering that if the Leigh Creek coalfields were originally barrier island estuaries, then we could expect Leigh Creek type deposits in all the major valleys of the Flinders Ranges which sloped north and west towards the Triassic sea that caused the Cooper and Eromanga basins (geology model α above). Like the Eucla Basin (geology model ω above) there would be a finite number of sand-hill coast lines, a single estuary, pointed to by a buried submarine canyon, and on the southern/western side of that former estuary mouth would be the 1-5 km diameter Leigh Creek type lobe. Much of this evidence would be buried under later alluvial material but the dunes may have caused a remnant linear high that could be detected by space-borne radar.

The access to this technology is not difficult. Alan Mauger at PIRSA and Mark Bishop at the University of South Australia are both expert at this type of analysis. This technique would reduce your search in at least one dimension. A re-exploration of the valleys of the Flinders Ranges to the south and west of Leigh Creek could also point towards another outcome of interest.

### Marginalia for posters in Microsoft Publisher

main article Tectonic Uplift of the Photocopier link is the bibliography

The geology model α / geology model ω shows how SVG can be used to composite elements. I can make more complex figures by the integration of extensible markup language (XML) in a classical format file, in this demonstration either thumbs.xml (a variant with the thumbs.dtd) or my1stxml.xml, both based on the exemplar of Howlett and Dunmall in Microsoft Internet Developer (2000). Each file can be viewed with the linked extensible stylesheet (XSL) files, jtf.xsl and magazine.xsl, respectively; as well as the other extensible scripting language (*.xsl) files:

In combination, such as this table, files like these can be used for the activities outlined in these sections:

This is an older version of the table (19th September 2012) referenced in the 'making a poster' section in the Grimoire of Geological Computing. It allows those people without Internet Explorer and the SAX compiler that comes with it to get an idea of what can be done.
1 x palm 2 thumbs 2 digits 1 x thumb = 1 x man 1 x digit ½ thumb 4 pt
4'6" 6' 6'3" 5'4" 6' 5' 5'6" 4'2" 4'7" 5'4" 5'5" model maker 6' 4'9" 5'5" 5' 6' 5'6"
-----------www.airfix.comX-----
X-----X----www.bburago.com------
-----X----Xwww.billings.com------
XX-------X-www.hotworksracing.com------
-----------www.hornby.com--X---
--X--------www.revell.de-X--XX
---X-------www.scalextric.com------
---X---XX--www.siku.de--XX--
-----------www.walthers.com--X---
-X---------www.ixomodels.com------
1/181/241/251/321/361/401/431/501/551/641/65fractional scale1/721/761/87 1/1201/1441/1200

#### Children's play for measurement and perspective

Alright! the teacher yelled in frazzlement, Put your hand up, if you have forgotten to bring your own skeleton to school today. An older version of the table (19th September 2012) above is referenced in the 'making a poster' section in the Grimoire of Geological Computing and also shown here as the alternative for people without an XSL(T) processor (for example Internet Explorer and the SAX compiler) in their browser. The table has also progressed in content and is now better suited for a reference on a touchtable. With the measurement metaphors above, the poster format used for emergency plans at around 1:1000 scale is just the domain of the TYPED PAGE letter, just a part of what is now shown. However, even in that domain there are play-based activities which go beyond …. This web article on paper crafts may be a reminder of your own childhood adventures into this world.

The photograph used by Google Images to list the article How to Make Your Photos 3D! by Shaunte, pictured on the right of the group, a blogger on the Crafts UNLEASHED website.

If you don't do anything else for National Science Week please save your old travel guides from the bin. I have started including the maps from these in the lower half of the table above, and I can now get b.d. (beyond detection) into the story (#mineralexploration). Next step is to work in the maquettes of buildings from the drawings in the travel guides by botching up some scales: so kids can cut them out, upgrade them, and make their own 3D streetscapes on top of satellite images. Then use their mobile phones to pretend to be a drone. I already have UBD examples if any #datascience boys have worked up algorithms for www.rabbitscan.org.au and the next time they have the kids at the holiday shack. As a recap, the mathematical principles introduced by this type of play are:

With additional materials like those found in an agriculture laboratory, or interpretive centre for a mine or natural gas field; this exercise can introduce geography topics like:

1. PLUMB LINE groundwater, anthropology, mining (technological) history and geotourism;
2. SURVEY POLE land use, taxation, and the economy;
3. HUMAN SKELETON human factors, occupational, and public health;
4. TYPED LETTER governance, environmental monitoring [social licence], and statutory reporting;
5. PLANT LEAF land clearance, mine rehabilitation, and the value of science;
6. PANTYHOSE mineral processing, domestic consumption, and synthetic materials;
7. b.d. , the fourth estate, with narrative as a tool for critical thinking; creationism and eugenics vs evolution.

#### Using WingtraOne for wildlife monitoring

All the component files for the table above must be valid XML documents (so you can inspect them with the standard Microsoft Explorer viewer). In the section Figures referenced in the Grimoire of Geological Computing files like those will be used to produce a diagram with structured elements in Vector Markup Language (VML). For this section I introduce the output of the thumbs.xsl file which is a table of scale model manufacturers against available scales, first designed to be included as marginalia in a map for flood and bushfire planning. Benefitting from a number line of proper fractions, demonstrating vertical exaggeration (5:6), recognised by Godtfred Christiansen, inherent to the Lego System and the creation of Modulex, the later version of the table includes a row for teaching aids: survey staff or pole, skeleton, book and leaf. These are lead-ins to discussion about mine surveying, heritage clearances, mining records and environmental audits. The different measures are summarised and linked to Wikipedia entries in the Computers in Geology FAQ section.

I have a background in mine monitoring, mineral exploration and mining-community relations. I have been working on on things I should have done a long time ago and one is monitoring the radiation in the Woomera Prohibited Area. The challenge in monitoring for radiation is matching the physical phenomena to the actual biological damage, and tissue samples are needed. By coincidence Adelaide ,the local capital city, has an emerging biotech industry which is specialising in laboratory animals, and the two wild species for the WPA are the feral rabbit, and the need-to-be-reintroduced Tammar Wallaby; the former vital to cosmetics industry, the latter to in-vitro-fertilisation research. A classic field geology problem of getting the laboratory into the bush, or the bush into the laboratory. I have been gradually expanding on the problem in my LinkedIn articles as exemplar technology like the VTOL WingtraOne drone crosses into the feed. I see WingtraOne as the reconnaissance vehicle to identify rabbit carcasses (before the Wedge-tailed Eagles consume them - #rabbittaker), and for the Tammar Wallaby to identify the location of the mob to minimise the tramming time for a #landdrone to take and preserve a blood sample (the #TammarTangler theme).

#### Make tables of occurrence for archaeological artefacts

From the table above, the 1:24 column has several occurrences both for formal models and for bricks. In particular the Modulex M20 System intended for 1:20 scale volume calculation (one stud equals one litre) can be bootlegged to provide two stud bricks to emulate the thickness of Russian (ru) or Swedish (se) bricks for Cold-War era reconstructions from drone photograhs of excavations. Replicas of vehicles can be sourced from the manufacturers in the table to test the trafficability of your interpretation of the remains. Examining the entries in the thumbs.xml, lists that by slight variation of the scale of the underlay, contructions can be made for the other brick sizes shown in the Wikimedia figure below.

As an example of the flexibility of XML reporting, consider the 3:125 entry for Lego Systems which has a title construction of &ellip;5 (by height) or 6 courses&ellip; compared to the standard form of 1:50 For a doorway, 5 courses of Lego System bricks beneath the lintel (width and length). This exception has been accommodated in the XML data file, whereas in a classical SQL database this would have required, for this single exception, a rewrite of the SQL query and report to accommodate two records. In earth science there are often single samples that do not fit, what miners term, the run-of-mill. The critical diagram for geology to show this is the occurrence chart; most often showing Latin fossil names but it can be used for any type of facies to demonstrate at least the "Law of Faunal Assemblages" and the "Law of Faunal Succession". The case here is about the most generally applicable I can think of, and in itself is an example for archaeological use of the regional brick standards shown in the Wikipedia figure below.

law of faunal assemblage
A general law of geology; Similar assemblages of fossil organisms (flora and fauna) indicate similar geologic ages for the rocks that contain them. Dictionary of Geological Terms, Revised Edition

This diagram is ready to go for that use. Just take a copy the two files thumbs.xsl and thumbs.xml. Change the names of provenance of the toys, such as clay pit or kiln site, for which you have documentary or even better mineralogical analyses, and the appropriate scales in the thumbs.xml file (Microsoft Notepad will do). Implement the two files as in the first part of this file (View > Source) and you will have your own occurrence diagram. As far as I know there is no limit on the number of manufacturers, and with some study the number of columns or another measure can be substituted into the thumbs.xsl file.

law of faunal succession
A general law of geology; Fossil organisms (flora and fauna) succeed one another in a definite and recognizable order; each geologic formation having a different having a different total aspect of life from the formations above it and below it; or the age of the rocks can be determined from their fossil content. Dictionary of Geological Terms, Revised Edition

As an explanation of the archeological use of this table: toys or personal artefacts are often buried or lost in tellus and the scale and origin can identify the cultural setting as in the brick diagram shown from Wikimedia. A distant relative in Dauphiné continues the practice in this video. Attending lectures on cuneiform writing, I realised it was also the basis of promisary notes, with small models of loan animals being encased in clay and that marked with the contents (before being buried). This early bank ledger then passed to just marks on clay tablets, and then to paper, to computerised automated teller machine records and now to bitcoin. So in addition to the social lessons, there is potentially an economic analysis.

### Figures with repeated elements

main article Review of Golden Software MapViewer and Surfer products link is in the bibliography

Dr Bob Williams, formerly of the Royal Australian Survey Corp, explained that Project Parare, the policy for incorporation of all environmental data into the defence mapping suite, included the concept of tesselated scales of data. This is suggested figuratively by the two or more overlapping appplications in the the Table for scale models above. Having demonstrated repeating elements in these previous sections, and then a use for it, I can extend these concepts to the integration of an extensible markup language or xml file viewed via the extensible stylesheet file magazine.xsl, two other extensible scripting language (*.xsl) files: header.xsl, my2ndxsl.xsl, and my1stxsl.xsl, both of which should also be valid XML documents and can be viewed by the standard Microsoft Explorer viewer; and VML to produce a hierarchy with structured elements. The section Figures referenced in the Grimoire of Geological Computing is an example of a the file being edited notepad style.

#### Figures referenced in the Grimoire of Geological Computing

This figure started out as a seating plan for the Broadview Freemasons Centre, Broadview, South Australia; but it is easier to do these in Golden Software MapViewer and export as Adobe Portable Document (PDF) format. In contrast to the previous examples for structured figures, this example has each shape specified, by coordinates, in this HTML file, with the size and outline of the shape made consistent by registering a shape type in the first part of this page. Try the Internet Explorer menu command 'Page | View source' to see these. If you try to copy this figure into a document such as a Microsoft Word file, the figure collapses into a series of points without any structure.

### Publishing geology

main article Tectonic Uplift of the Photocopier link is in the bibliography

Why go to this trouble shown in the previous sections? VML was the native layout language of Microsoft Publisher, the entry-level desktop publishing software, and part of the Microsoft Office package. I always wondered why they bothered with the insert HTML block option: cut and paste the <v: tags into it!. As you would expect it kept the structure and ability to edit in at least Microsoft Word (load the whole HTML file) and Microsoft Powerpoint (highlight the diagram block and then copy, and paste into your slide). There is still a full reference at http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb264280.aspx in the Microsoft Developers Network Library.

But just using Microsoft Publisher is not criticial to a geologist but consider the figure below, also in VML, which shows the whole exploration process as just one long publishing train: conquer the publishing cycle, conquer the exploration cycle. And it is not just exploration, the jobs in the object diagram on the recruit.html page of the Geoscience Gateway are associated with a particular report which must be published regularly.

THE PUBLICATION CYCLE FOR EXPLORATION DESIGN
(and/or SCIENCE)
DOMINANT
ACTIVITIES
COMPLIANCE
(and/or ECONOMY)
DOMINANT
ACTIVITIES
1     2     3     4     5     6     7         8         9     10             LEGEND

1. measurement
2. calibration
3. instrument
4. device type
5. database
6. computer application
7. figure element
8. figure
9. report copy
10. technical committee meeting
publication
process
n:1

### A selection of geophysical data processing algorithms

main article Review of AusGeoRef link is in the bibliography

This next table is intended to replace the table of algorithms in the Grimoire of Geological Computing. It demonstrates a table extracted from an Thomson EndNote file grimoire.xml which contains a selected bibliography from that e-book. The intent with the XSL(T) translation file algorithm.xsl is to select only those references which have annotations regarding algorithms used for processing. Ultimately there will be a table of references to answer the question: "What can I do with the geoscience data I have?". This is based on the same Web 2.0/HTML5 technology used in the thumb.xml example above but altered to use Thompson EndNote format as with legal.xml used in the Matthew 7:26 demonstration. This table also uses the XSL compiler for JavaScript of the HTML5 standard browsers, but I have edited in and annotated a reliable version of the table previously compiled with the Internet Explorer SAX compiler, for those readers using older HTTP browsers. Finally, keeping to the theme of HTML5 and geophysics processing, ornamenting this paragraph is the clock example from the Canvas tutorial of ws3tools.com so as to give an example dashboard for reductions from a remote embedded sensor as promoted on the www.runlinc.com website.

This is an older version of the table (19th September 2012) to replace the Algorithms table in the Grimoire of Geological Computing. It allows those people without Internet Explorer and the SAX compiler that comes with it to get an idea of what can be done.
geophysical measurement
category : 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.59.69.79.89.9
studies : 264 265 263 265 201 209 250 225 48 265 225 200 201 209 250 264 265 261 39 264 265 225 263 262
topics :
casedocument for the case study number
200Seismic surveys and marine life: Why does the 'noise' mask the science and the industry experience?, PESA News Resources, pages 36-41.
201Early dipmeters and new tricks with old dips - part 1, PESA News Resources, pages 26-29.
209Early dipmeters and new tricks with old dips - part 2, PESA News Resources, pages 78-85.
223Numerical modelling of the western Hodgkinson Province, northeast Queensland: implications for gold mineralisation, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, pages 27-47.
225New technologies and techniques in land seismic acquisition, PESA News Resources, pages 71-72.
236Working with your own data: a rational approach to a digital learning and research framework for Australian geology students, 1st Australian Geoscience Teaching Workshop, pages 28.
249Clustering of cumulative grainsize distribution curves for shallow-marine samples with software program CLARA., Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, pages 503-519.
250Geoelectrical imaging of a thick regolith developed on ultramafic rocks: groundwater influence., Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, pages 773-781.
261Assessing the recent (1834 - 2002) morphological evolution of a rapidly prograding delta within a GIS framework: Macquarie rivulet delta, Lake Illawarra, New South Wales, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, pages 1047-1056.
262Trimble increases gold mine productivity in Africa - ""There's gold in those hills" - and Trimble GPS is helping find it., Technology & more, pages 4.
263The story of a volcano, using Trimble GPS to monitor Mount St. Helens., Technology & more, pages 6-7.
264GPS database key to avalanche predictions, Technology & more, pages 20.
265Mapping the Nation's treasures, Technology & more, pages 4.
266Trimble 3D scanner probes Ramses' royal tomb, Technology & more, pages 16 to 17.
39The Digital Revolution, Position, pages 66-68.
48Thermodynamic modelling of lode gold deposits in Archaen granitoids: Woodcutters and Lady Bountiful mines, Kalgoorlie region, Western Australia., Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, pages 431-438.