COMPUTERS IN GEOLOGY

Geoscience Gateway

What can you find here?
Web pages of heritage areas listed, alphabetically, by hemisphere, and geological age basis.
Todays date for a range of calendars.
A list of authors and their books about mineral surveying and heritage.

Calendars of the World

Are you archiving pictures and other primary historical sources and worried about what date you should be using? Would you like to use the astronomical date calculator to give you a single integer for your index? This is just a mockup on 1954 AD but I am scripting it.

Enter your year: - (BC, ?H, BCE)
+ (AD, AH, ACE)
Islamic calendar, type A
Julian or Gregorian calendars
[Representations of life in various periods]

An estimate of the astronomical day number is:

A tower in the Plaka, Athens, Greece. Is this the Tower of Winds, used for telling of time, as shown in fig.3.10 of Richards' 'Mapping Time'?

Other representations of todays date are:

Adelaide
Bellevue
Boston
Glendale
Greenwich1
Medina1
Paris
Santa Clara Valley milliseconds
Urbana-Champaign
1 Calculated from algorithms provided in , chapter 25 - The conversion of regular calendars in, 'Mapping Time' by E. G. Richards.

Web sites for heritage areas

Links to information or data without charge on natural and built heritage sites are placed on this gateway in geographical or age context:

years
before
present
southern
hemisphere
northern
hemisphere
 
Other jurisdictions not shown in the geographical montage [ the favourite icon for the HTwins web-site by Cary and Michael Huang [The favourite icon for the Journal of Environmental Informatics] [ the favourite icon for the HTwins web-site by Cary and Michael Huang [ the favourite icon for the HTwins web-site by Cary and Michael Huang
120E

  [favourite icon for the Santos Water Portal website] [favourite icon for the AUSGIN Geoscience Portal] [The the favourite icon for ArcGIS website] [favourite icon for the Geoscience Australia website] [The the favourite icon for Deadly Vibe website] [The the favourite icon for Pearsons (Penguin is their best known imprint)] [The shortcut icon for the Instagram website] [The shortcut icon for the CAMS website] [The shortcut icon for the NITV website] [The favourite's icon for the AusGeol website] [The favourite icon for the Musica Viva website]

[The icon for the publishers Earth Science Western Australia]

Favorite icon for the TouTube website [The favourite icon for the Recreation SA website] [favourite [The logo for SA Trails website] [The logo for Peacock Publications] [The shortcut icon for the web-site of the Adelaide Cemetery Authority ] [The shortcut icon for the web-site of Brand South Australia] [The favourite icon for the web-site of Grand Lodge of Ancient and Free Masons of South Australian and the Northern Territory] [The favourite icon for National Storage web-sites] [The favourite icon for the Kennard Storage web-site] [The favourite icon for the Kennard Storage web-site] [The favourite icon for Storage King web-sites] [The favourite icon for South Australian National Football League web-site] [The favourite icon for Kent Removals web-site] [The favourite icon for Adelaide Interstate Removals web-site] [The favourite icon for Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources web-site] [The favourite icon for the Geocortex product used to display serial numbers from the DEWNR GIS] [The short cut icon for the South Australian Community History website] [The short cut icon for the South Australian Wooden Boat Festival website] [The short cut icon for Klose's Furniture Removals [The short cut icon for the Pilgrim Uniting Church website] [The short cut icon for the Pilgrim Uniting Church website] [The short cut icon for the Metropolitan Choir of South Australia website] [The short cut icon for the Pilgrim Uniting Church website] [The short cut icon for the Recitals Australia website] [The short cut icon for Gould Genealogy & History] [The favourite icon for The Society of Editors, South Australian division] [The logo for the Glendi Greek Festival Inc.] [The favourite icon for the Government of South Australia web-site] Favorite icon for the City of Burnside [the icon for a map from the SARIG database] [the favorite icon for the Minerals division of State Development website] [The logo for William Harley and Son - Bookbinders]

Northern Territory
Tasmania

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[favourite icon for the Coffs Harbour Butterfly House lepidoptera website] [favourite icon for the Gondwana Coast Fossil Walk website] [The favourite icon for Huguenot Society of Australia] [The favourite icon for GlassTerra web-site used to view NSW 3D Geological models] [The favourite icon for NSW 3D Geological models website]

[favourite [favourite [The favourite icon for The Queensland Art Gallery/ Gallery of Modern Art] [The favourite icon for The Queensland Living History Federation] [The favourite icon for Trinity College of the Charles Sturt University] [The favourite icon for The Queensland Government] [The favourite icon for The Queensland Living History Federation] [The favourite icon for the Queensland Museum] [The favourite icon for Kent Removals web-site] [The favourite icon for the Cathedral of St Stephens] [The favourite icon for the National Storage website [The favourite icon for the Uniting Church of Australia] [The favourite icon for the Brisbane Baroque Players] [The favourite icon for the Queensland Museum] [The favourite icon for the Australian Performing Arts market] [The favourite icon for the Australian Football League Queensland website] [The favourite icon for the SportsTG website] [The favourite icon for the SportsTG website] [The favourite icon for the SportsTG website] [The favourite icon for the Willis L. Haenke Historical Foundation website] [The favourite icon for the SportsTG website] [The favourite icon for the the University of Queensland sports and activities union website] [the shortcut icon for the Royal Automobile Club of Queensland web page]

[Favourite icon for the Volcano Discovery website]

[The favourite icon for the Federated States of Micronesia webpage]

[favourite

[the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website] [the favorite icon for the Palaeos, life through deep time, website] [The short cut icon for the Indigenous Marathon Project website] [The short cut icon for the Geology Page website] [The favourite icon for Wikipedia] [favourite [favourite icon for the National Park Service (U.S. Department of the Interior) web-site] [The favourite icon for US geological Survey home page] [the favorite icon for Earth Observatory web site from NASA]

[favourite [favourite

130E Papua New Guinea
145E Solomon Islands Nauru
155E European Union

[The favorite icon for the maphill web site] [favourite icon for the LinkedIn website] [The favorite icon for the BP web site] [The favourite icon for the Miniatur Wonderland website] [favourite [The favorite icon for the Science Direct website] [The favorite icon for the Swedish Tourism website] [The favorite icon for Trip In View website]

Republic of Vanuatu
160E
170 Viti
175 United Kingdom, Tuvalu and Kiribati

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database] the favorite icon for The Natural History Museum, London website

180 Pule'anga Tonga

[The favourite icon for the Formula E website] [favorite icon for the UNESCO World Heritage Convention website.]

0 the clerical revolution

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

[favourite icon for the Trove website from the National Library of Australia] [favourite icon for the You Tube website] [favourite icon for the You Tube website] [favourite icon for the You Tube website] [favourite icon for the You Tube website] [favourite icon for the You Tube website] [favourite icon for the Wikipedia website] [The favorite icon for the Brisbane City Council website] [The favorite icon for the Destination 360 website] [the favorite icon for Earth Observatory web site from NASA] Favorite icon for the YouTube website Favorite icon for the YouTube website Favorite icon for the YouTube website [favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[favourite icon for the Museum of Early Television web-site] GOMA Cinema [The short cut icon for the Geology Page website] Portmeiron [favourite icon for the Computers in Geology web-site]

100 telephony (1906 +40,-45 years)
 

Prospect Hill Community Favorite icon for the YouTube website Favorite icon for the City of Burnside Favourite icon for the South Australian Wooden Boat Festival [The short cut icon for the South Australian Maritime Museum website] [The short cut icon for community museums including the National Railway Museum, Port Adelaide] [The default icon for the Lismore City website] [favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[Favorite icon for the Wikipedia website] [The short cut icon for the Neuschwanstein website] favorite icon for the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection website The favourite icon for the Andalucia The favourite icon for the Summit Post magazine

200 the industrial revolution

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

The log on the Flinders Ranges History web page The Battle of One Tree Hill Favorite icon for the City of Burnside Pioneer Women's Trail

Somersetshire [logo for Swedish and Norwegian Canals] Meteora [favorite icon for the Cornwalls website.] [favorite icon for the UNESCO World Heritage Convention website.]

500 the Renaissance
 

[The favourite icon for the website of the Chico Mendes Institute for the conservation of biodiversity]

Beauvais [Favorite icon for the Rab town website] Wieliczka Salt Mine [Favorite icon for the Polish Tourist Organisation website]

1 000 the Dark Ages
  

Olympia [The short cut icon for the World Heritage Convention web-site from UNESCO] [favourite icon for the National Parks Service (U.S. Department of the Interior) web-site] [favourite icon for the China Highlights web-site] [favourite icon for the Computers in Geology web-site] [favourite icon for the Goteborg tourist web-site] [favourite icon for the Lofotr Viking Musem web-site] [favourite icon for the Computers in Geology web-site] various ...

2 000 the expansion of Roman influence

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website] The Wolli Creek Valley shortcut icon for the Glen Innes Tourism website

5 000 the first building of cities
 

Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mt Cootha [favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[favourite icon for the National Parks Service (U.S. Department of the Interior) web-site] Çatalhöyük

10 000 the domestication of plants
 

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

20 000 the domestication of animals

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

[the icon for a map from the SARIG database] [favourite icon for the Geoscience Australia website] [favourite icon for the LinkedIn website] [favourite icon for the AUSGIN Geoscience Portal] [favourite icon for the European Space Agency web-site] [favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[favourite icon for the Greenland tourism web-site]

2 000 000 Gelasian - Calabrian boundary (1.80 ± 0.8)

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

[the icon for a map from the SARIG database] [favourite icon for the Geoscience Australia website] [favourite icon for the LinkedIn website] [favourite icon for the AUSGIN Geoscience Portal] [the favorite icon for the Minerals division of State Development website] [favourite icon for the Friends of the Brisbane Botanic Gardens web-site] [favourite icon for the Western Australia National Parks web-site] [favourite icon for the New Zealand official tourism web-site] [favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[favourite icon for the USGS GMEG - Geology and Geophysics web-site] [favourite icon for the Geology Page web-site] [favourite icon for the Geology Page web-site] Lake Baikal [favourite icon for the Zermatt, Switzerland web-site] [favourite icon for the National Park Service web-site] [favourite icon for the Avenue of the Giants web-site]

50 000 000 Mesozoic-Cenozoic boundary (66 -5,+6 Ma)

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

[favourite

[favourite icon for the How It Works Daily web-site] [favourite icon for the Saxon Swizerland National Park web-site] [favourite icon for the Saxon Swizerland tourist web-site] [The logo for the New Mexico Tourism Department website ] [The logo for the United States National Park Service website]

100 000 000 Jurassic - Cretaceous boundary (145 +7,-5 Ma)
 

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website] [favourite icon for the Computers in Geology web-site] [favourite icon for the Geological Society of Australia web-site] [favourite icon for the Gondwana Coast Fossil Walk website]

[The logo for the United States National Park Service website] [The logo for the Science Direct website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website]

200 000 000 Palaeozoic-Mesozoic boundary (252 +2,-1 Ma)
 

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website] Girraween National Park [favourite icon for the Gondwana Coast Fossil Walk website]

[The favorite icon for the Discover Moab offical Moab City tourist website] [The logo for the United States National Park Service website] [The Favorite icon for the ReVolvy website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website] Atlas of the Underworld

500 000 000 Phanerozoic-Proterozoic boundary (540 +96,-12 Ma)

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

Table Mountain [favourite icon for the Computers in Geology web-site] Hallett Cove [favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website]

1 000 000 000 Mesoprotozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary ( 1000 +200,-280 Ma)
 

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website] [the favorite icon for the Minerals division of State Development website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website]

2 000 000 000 Proterozoic-Archean boundary (2500 +300, -200 Ma)

[the favorite icon for the Palaeos, life through deep time, website]

[favorite icon for the UNESCO World Heritage Convention website.] [favorite icon for the GeoExpro website.] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website]

5 000 000 000 Estimated Formation of planet Earth (4600 ± 1000 Ma)
 

[the favorite icon for the Palaeos, life through deep time, website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website]

10 000 000 000 Guessed Age for the formation of the Milky Way Galaxy (?????)
 

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database] [the favorite icon for the Palaeos, life through deep time, website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website] [the favorite icon for the Cosmic Chicken website]

20 000 000 000 Supposedly, when only The Word existed

Regions that are adjacent have common cell boundaries, regions which are not contiguous don't

In the stratigraphic table above, regions that are adjacent have common cell boundaries, regions which are not contiguous don't. This came about as an attempt to maximise the space available for text. If for instance I had used hotpoints in a geographical projection there would be a few near-invisible points on a white page.

  1. This is composed from the principle that history is periods of quiessance punctuated by change. Therefore artifacts in any archeological record are not recording changes but rather the quiet period before that change. Examples of this are the heritage building that has survived urban renewal. It is from the period before the activity. In this way the record of history is similar to a stratigraphic column. For in a stratigraphic column the periods of quiet deposition are shown as formations separated by the unconformities, that is periods of active erosion.

    Where it is obvious, I have used technological events to puntuate the periods in the table. This is the archaeological concept that inventions revise culture, and I have also found this in my own experience with geological computing: successful technologies are quickly adopted because they are successful. I don't think anyone in history has enjoyed watching their children die. If there is something they can change in their society to prevent those deaths, the parents will do it.

  2. The second principle of this table is also taken from the geologists stratigraphic column. The regional scope of the data set represented by the link is shown by boxes and member sub regions by boxes inside the outer box.

    Where I have had the chance to research a geological formation I have used a dotted line around the website icons. This is implemented a style attribute of the enclosing HTML <nobr> element, which to enforces that they always appear at the same stratigraphic level, no matter what dimensions are used for the browser window.

  3. Each table cell joining other table cells gives every boundary that occurs geographically. For example South Australia has only boundaries with Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Northern Territory and Western Australia. The arrangement of the table cell therefore describes the complete geographical arrangement of the sovereign entities.

    In comparison the stratigraphic column boundaries are portayed as separated from the intervening strata (browse the style .precambrian in the ./gateway.css file) to imply the geological uncertainty, and a heavy dashed line is used for a eon which is only suggested.

  4. The colours of the stratigraphic diagram match that used in the International Geological Timescale. These are implemented with named classes (for example class="mesozoic") in the gateway.css file on this website. I have reserved the style="anthropocene" (see the Tasman Sea cell) for what would be described as "natural resources" in the current day.
  5. This is in contrast with the class="built" for man-made heritage. Current jurisdictions are distinguished by a flag color if there is not a unique ribbon of favourite icons. Where possible, the icons for a cultural instittution also give the link to web page for the index to the heritage web-pages shown in the stratigraphy (for example [favourite in the United States list).
  6. Stratigraphic Boundaries are bracketed by the ages for the stratigraphic elements above and below (the description is given with the span element, so move the mouse icon over each number). This is a better representation of the accuracy than quoting with the precision of the defining technique. Each stratigraphic element is defined on all geological measurement, in informatics terms "a boolean AND", not just the most precise measurement. For a field work equivalent, think strata stops being one stratigraphic element when it becomes another stratigraphic element.

[The logo for Gould Genealogy & History] [The logo for DLM Removals & Storage] [The logo for CHASDOR BINDERY SOLUTIONS PTY LTD, South Australia] [The logo for Flinders Ranges Research a private research service for South Australia] [The logo for the Global Heritage Fund ]

An HTTP-compliant algorithm for the stratigraphic time continuum

Perhaps in the table above, to make the page more pleasing, I could have pasted a satellite image behind those hot-points, but I only wanted to show the information I had, and not have the reader focussing on a picture with no factual significance. The result is ugly, as it looks like an object model for a computer program, but it is quite compact. If you cast your mouse across the regions and boundaries you will see that they are captioned with titles.

The table also shows the Tau shaped time-space (+stratigraphic) continuum model. From at least the archaeologist's point of view, the longitude direction is aligned in the direction of time, with latitude at right angles. Longitude only affects the last day of time and so all history sits below the nexus of the two coordinates as in the diagram above. For an example, consider the scene in the film "Independence Day 4" where the aliens have flying saucers distributed around the globe hovering above the capital cities. Then in unison they begin attacking. Subsequently, for an archeologist investigating these ruins, he or she would have to adjust the time of day of the attack based on the longitude of the devastated city to demonstrate that the destruction occurred at the same instant. Otherwise, it would appear that it occurred during the previous day through the night to the next day. Then the title of the film would have to be changed perhaps to 'Independence Weekend 4' and I am sure Hollywood would never have made that film. Since setting up this table, there was the devastating tsunami in the the Indian Ocean, and this mathematical approach to the timing of geological events proved practical in firstly identifying where the epicentre occurred and then determining which islands and villages were affected so the rescue teams could visit them, as there wouldn't be the resources to visit every island at least in the time required to prevent further death.

To maintain the density of the text links, and keep the principle that every table data cell boundary represents a geographical relationship, the columns of links have been spaced or separated into groups by the unsorted list element "ul". Then by using the style attribute of "float" the columns of links occur as if they were separate "td" elements. The "ul" element is also conveninet for fading any background color (actually re-assigning the color with the style attibute) to make the text easier to read.

I started the table structure, because there was nothing else I could easily put on the Bigpond web site. I was re-assured that before Smith invented the geological map (of Britain), members of the Geological Society used tables to display lithology, I have found there are some extra benefits I didn't forsee:

[A sample of the work from the Adelaide Mint] [The favourite icon for GlassTerra software used to view NSW 3D Geological models] [The logo for the subscription radio-station 4MBS.] [The South Australian Government logo used on the Carrick Hill heritage web-site.] [the favorite icon for the Atlas of the Underworld  website]

Authors and books about the history of mineral surveying

The development of mineral surveying has been covered by the several authors in the Name List on the Computers in Geology home page. What they have written is listed elsewhere, as suggested. I find reading books like these very comforting; as I don't get half the run around that these pioneers had to put up with. The journals listed below that discuss more recent innovation in the work.

  1. As well as the references from the recommended authors,
  2. there is also an extract of the bibliography used for the Grimoire of Geological Computing.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Explorer June 2002 - Computers in Geology special edition.
Explorer April 2001 - Computers in Geology special edition.
Explorer June 2000 - Computers in Geology special edition.
Explorer June 1999 - Computers in Geology special edition.
Geoffrey C. BOWKER
Science on the Run: Information Management and Industrial Geophysics at Schlumberger, 1920-1940
Robert DEMICCO
Robert V. Demicco and George Klir (2003) Fuzzy Logic in Geology. Elsevier Academic Press ISBN: 0-12-415146-9 [The cover of Fuzzy Logic in Geology]
S. A. DRURY
Image Interpretation in Geology. Chapman & Hall, London.
Mary-Ellen F. FEENEY
Mary-Ellen is with the Hydrographic Office of the Royal Australian Navy and a researcher at Department of Geomatics, the University of Melbourne.
Bob FRANKSTON
Implementing VisiCalc
Robert GUBBINS
Time series analysis and inverse theory for geophysicists. Cambridge University Press.
Clifford J. HEARN

Clifford J. Hearn (2003) The Dynamics of Coastal Models. Cambridge University Press ISBN-10: 0521529522

  1. Preface;
  2. Nomenclature;
  3. Prelude to modeling coastal basins;
  4. Currents and continuity;
  5. Box and one-dimensional models;
  6. Basic hydrodynamics;
  7. Simple hydrodynamic models;
  8. Modeling tides and long waves in coastal models;
  9. Mixing in coastal basins;
  10. Advection of momentum;
  11. Aspects of stratification;
  12. Dynamics of partially mixed basins;
  13. Roughness in coastal basins;
  14. Wave and sediment dynamics;
  15. Bibliography;
  16. Index
[The cover of 'The Dynamics of Coastal Models']
Daniel HILLEL
[The cover of 'Introduction to soil physics'] Daniel Hillel (2004) Introduction to soil physics. Elsevier Academic PressISBN: 0-12-348655-6
International Society for Environmental Information Sciences
[Cover of J. of Env. Informatics]
ISEIS 2007 International Conference on Environmental Informatics
Journal of Environmental Informatics
Geological Society of America
[The cover of 'Journal of Geoscience Informatics'] Journal of Earth Science Informatics
O'Reilly & Associates Inc.
O'Reilly & Associates have a series of books for programmers including the "… in a nutshell series"
Samizdat Press
South Pacific Science Press Pty Ltd.
Position Magazine incorporating GIS User and Map & Measure.
... other authors
... other books

[logo for Swedish and Norwegian Canals] [The logo for the Queensland branch of the Submarines Association Australia.] [The logo for the History House Museum and Research Centre in Glen Innes, NSW]

The Geoscience Gateway is compiled by Grant Jacquier as a free service for individuals and organisations interested in computer application for practical geoscience.
Material on the Geoscience Gateway may be freely published provided acknowledgement of the source is given. Please note any opinions expressed here are assuming general conditions that will not be valid for all cases. Therefore readers should seek professional advice on their particular situation before implementing any suggestions.

The page was created in May 2002.
© Grant Jacquier, 2013