COMPUTERS IN GEOLOGY

Geoscience Gateway

What can you find here?
The date for today in a range of calendars,
a universal stratigraphic column for several eons,
telephony in an historical context,
web pages of heritage areas listed, alphabetically, by hemisphere, and geological age basis,
emblems and Coat-of-Arms for nations in well-formed SVG,
regions that are adjacent have common cell boundaries, regions which are not contiguous don't
an HTTP-compliant algorithm for the stratigraphic time continuum,
a list of authors and their books about mineral surveying and heritage,
and a proof-of-concept for calculating the astronomical day for the first day of a Julian or Islamic A calendar year,
or just select the default gateway.

For the research and drafting of stratigraphic columns;

Representing the Astronomical Day

Other representations of todays date are:

Adelaide
Bellevue
Boston
Glendale
Greenwich1
Medina1
Paris
Santa Clara Valley milliseconds
Urbana-Champaign
Geneva 2017-12-05 (mockup) 20171205 (mockup)
2017-W50-2 (mockup) 2017W502 (mockup)
2017-346 (mockup) 2017346 (mockup)
1 Calculated from algorithms provided in , chapter 25 - The conversion of regular calendars in, 'Mapping Time' by E. G. Richards.

A universal stratigraphic column for several eons

This stratigraphic column depicted using HTML5 coding, has links to information or data on natural and built heritage sites. These web-sites, which do not charge for the data, are placed on the table in alphabetical, geographical or age context; and is a demonstration for these themes:

years
before
present
southern
hemisphere
northern
hemisphere
 

[the favorite icon for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change website] [the favorite icon for the YouTube website] [the favorite icon for the BioInteractive website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website]

-50 the future
 
Other jurisdictions not shown in the geographical montage [The favourite icon for the Journal of Environmental Informatics] [The favourite icon for OrrBodies web-site] [The favourite icon for Luwian Studies web-site] [The logo for the Moscow City Symphony - Russian Philharmonic] [The favourite icon for Zoos SA web-site] [the favourite icon for the HTwins web-site by Cary and Michael Huang [ the favourite icon for the HTwins web-site by Cary and Michael Huang
120E

AUD (£, overprints)

Coat of arms of Australia (1908-1912) Favorite icon for the SBS Food website [favourite icon for the Trip Advisor website] [favourite icon for the Big Bash website] [favourite icon for the Santos Water Portal website] [favourite icon for the AUSGIN Geoscience Portal] [The the favourite icon for ArcGIS website] [favourite icon for the Geoscience Australia website] [The the favourite icon for Deadly Vibe website] [The the favourite icon for Pearsons (Penguin is their best known imprint)] [The shortcut icon for the Instagram website] [The shortcut icon for the CAMS website] [The shortcut icon for the NITV website] [The favourite's icon for the AusGeol website] [The favourite icon for the Musica Viva website]

AUD(£, overprints, sovereign - P rum)

Coat of arms of Western Australia [favourite icon for the DMR Bookshop web-site] [favourite icon for the Western Australia National Parks web-site] [favourite icon for the Department of Mines, Industry, Regulation and Safety web-site] [favourite icon for the Geology WA webserver] [The icon for the publishers Earth Science Western Australia]

AUD (£, overprints, Adelaide Pound, sovereign)

Coat of arms of South Australia

[The favourite icon for the Recreation SA website] [favourite [The logo for SA Trails website] [The shortcut icon for the web-site of the Adelaide Cemetery Authority ] [The shortcut icon for the web-site of Brand South Australia] [The favourite icon for the web-site of Grand Lodge of Ancient and Free Masons of South Australian and the Northern Territory] [The favourite icon for National Storage web-sites] [The favourite icon for the Kennard Storage web-site] [The favourite icon for the Kennard Storage web-site] [The favourite icon for Storage King web-sites] [The logo for South Australian National Football League web-site] [The favourite icon for Kent Removals web-site] [The favourite icon for Zoos SA web-site] [The favourite icon for Adelaide Interstate Removals web-site] [The favourite icon for Geocortex webmapping application] [The favourite icon for the Geocortex product used to display serial numbers from the DEWNR GIS] [The short cut icon for the South Australian Community History website] [The short cut icon for the South Australian Wooden Boat Festival website] [The short cut icon for Klose's Furniture Removals [The short cut icon for the Pilgrim Uniting Church website] [The short cut icon for the Pilgrim Uniting Church website] [The short cut icon for the Metropolitan Choir of South Australia website] [The short cut icon for the Rosefield Uniting Church website] [The short cut icon for the Recitals Australia website] [The short cut icon for Gould Genealogy & History] [The favourite icon for The Society of Editors, South Australian division] [The logo for the Glendi Greek Festival Inc.] [The logo for the Adelaide Now website] [The logo for the Port Adelaide Boatfest website] [The favourite icon for the Government of South Australia web-site] Favorite icon for the MMCSA website Favorite icon for the City of Burnside [the icon for a map from the SARIG database] [the favorite icon for the Minerals division of State Development website] [The favorite icon for William Harley and Son website]

AUD (£, overprints, , Adelaide Pound, sovereign - S rum)

Coat of arms of the Northern Territory

Tasmania

AUD (£, overprints, sovereign - S rum)

Coat of arms of Tasmania

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

AUD (£, overprints, sovereign - M, sovereign - S rum)

AUD (£, overprints, treasury notes, sovereign - S rum)

Coat of Arms of New South Wales

[The favorite icon for the History in the Bible web-site] [favourite icon for the Coffs Harbour Butterfly House lepidoptera website] [favourite icon for the Gondwana Coast Fossil Walk website] [The favourite icon for Huguenot Society of Australia] Favorite icon for the Good Food website [The favourite icon for GlassTerra web-site used to view NSW 3D Geological models] [The favourite icon for NSW 3D Geological models website] [the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

Coat of Arms of the Australian Capital Territory

AUD (£, overprints, bank notes, treasury notes, sovereign - S rum)

Coat of Arms of Queensland

[favourite icon for the Geological Society of Australia web-site] [The favourite icon for The Queensland Art Gallery/ Gallery of Modern Art] [The favourite icon for The Queensland Living History Federation] [The favourite icon for Trinity College of the Charles Sturt University] [The favourite icon for The Queensland Government] [The favourite icon for The Queensland Living History Federation] [The favourite icon for the Queensland Museum] [The favourite icon for Kent Removals web-site] [The favourite icon for the Cathedral of St Stephens] [The favourite icon for the National Storage website [The favourite icon for the Uniting Church of Australia] [The favourite icon for the Brisbane Baroque Players] [The favourite icon for the Queensland Museum] [The favourite icon for the Australian Performing Arts market] [The favourite icon for the Australian Football League Queensland website] [The favourite icon for the SportsTG website] [The favourite icon for the SportsTG website] [The favourite icon for the SportsTG website] [The favourite icon for the Willis L. Haenke Historical Foundation website] [The favourite icon for the SportsTG website] [The favourite icon for the the University of Queensland sports and activities union website] [the shortcut icon for the Royal Automobile Club of Queensland web page]

National emblem of Indonesia Garuda Pancasila

[Favourite icon for the Volcano Discovery website]

Imperial Seal of Japan Seal of the United States Department of Energy

[A Glyph fron the RERF website]

Seal of the Federated States of Micronesia

[The favourite icon for the Federated States of Micronesia webpage]

[favourite

Coat of arms of the Republic of Texas Seal of Colorado

[favourite icon for the The University of Chicago web sites ] [favourite icon for the Global Heritage Fund web-site] [The favorite icon for the Bing website] [ the favourite icon for the NASA web-site] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website] [favourite icon for the Global Heritage Fund web-site] The logo for the SETI Institute (Search for Extra-Terrestial Intelligence) website [Favorite icon for the National Institutes of Health websites] [the favorite icon for the Palaeos, life through deep time, website] [The short cut icon for the Indigenous Marathon Project website] [The short cut icon for the Geology Page website] [The favourite icon for Wikipedia] [favourite [favourite icon for the National Park Service (U.S. Department of the Interior) web-site] [The favourite icon for Genius.com website] [The favourite icon for US geological Survey home page] [the favorite icon for Earth Observatory web site from NASA] [the favorite icon for Hidden Hydrology web site]

[favourite [favourite

130E Papua New Guinea

National Emblem of Papua New Guinea

145E Solomon Islands Nauru
155E

Coat of Arms of Norfolk Island

European Union XFP

Coat of arms of Greece Coat of arms of Germany Coat of arms of Portugal (Lesser)

[The favorite icon for the Auditorio Tenerife web site] [The favorite icon for the maphill web site] [favourite icon for the LinkedIn website] [The favorite icon for the BP web site] [The favourite icon for the Miniatur Wonderland website] [favourite [The favorite icon for the Science Direct website] [The favorite icon for the Swedish Tourism website] [The favorite icon for Trip In View website]

Republic of Vanuatu
160E

NZD PND CKD

Coat of arms of New Zealand

170E Viti FJD

Coat of arms of Fiji

175E United Kingdom (GBP), Tuvalu (TVD) and Kiribati (KID)

Crowned Floral Badges of the United Kingdom [favorite icon for Electric Mountain website] [favorite icon for Society of Antiquaries of Scotland website] [favorite icon for the Gresham College website] [favorite icon for the Imperial College website] [the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database] the favorite icon for The Natural History Museum, London website A logo for Orlando Media [favourite icon for the Global Heritage Fund web-site]

180 Pule'anga Tonga TOP

Coat of arms of Tonga

EUR

[The favourite icon for the You Tube website] [The favourite icon for the Formula E website] [favorite icon for the UNESCO World Heritage Convention website.]

0 the clerical revolution

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

[The favorite icon for the Destination 360 website]

[A Glyph fron the RERF website]

20 Wikipedia ( 2001 CE -2,+4 years)
 
  • Parafield Airport
  • Siding Spring Observatory
  • Woomera Rocket Range

The logo of the Army History Unit [The favorite icon for the Bing website] Favorite icon for the TouTube website [favourite icon for the Trove website from the National Library of Australia] [favourite icon for the Wikipedia website] [the favorite icon for Earth Observatory web site from NASA] ARL

PEI TPE ZWC ZWC ZAL AOK BOP BRB

[The short cut icon for the Gresham College website] ADF ATS BAD XEU [The short cut icon for the Geology Page website] GRD [favourite icon for the Computers in Geology web-site] [favourite icon for the Genius.com web-site] DEM LUF [The favorite icon for the History in the Bible web-site] FRF [Favorite icon for the National Institutes of Health websites] [Favorite icon for the Wikipedia website] [A Glyph fron the RERF website] A logo for Orlando Media

50 television ( AD 1944 ± 12 years)
 
  • Parafield Airport
  • Submariners' Walk

The logo of the Army History Unit [The favorite icon for the Brisbane City Council website] [The favorite icon for the Land of the Beardies website] Favorite icon for the YouTube website Favorite icon for the YouTube website The logo for the Steam Ranger heritage Society [favourite icon for the Living Earth website] [the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

A logo for Orlando Media [favourite icon for the Museum of Early Television web-site] GOMA Cinema [Favorite icon for the National Institutes of Health websites] [Favorite icon for the Portmeiron Village website] IEP PTE MAF

100 telephony (AD 1906 +50,-45 years)
 

The logo of the Army History Unit [favorite icon for the Adelaide Haunted Horizons website] [favorite icon for the AusIMM Bulletin] [favorite icon from the Google APIs default] Favorite icon for the YouTube website Favorite icon for the City of Burnside Favourite icon for the South Australian Wooden Boat Festival [The short cut icon for the South Australian Maritime Museum website] [The short cut icon for community museums including the National Railway Museum, Port Adelaide] [The default icon for the Lismore City website] [favourite icon for the Living Earth website] UYP ECS PEH

ADP BEF CYP FIM ITL NLG [The short cut icon for the Gresham College website] [The short cut icon for the Neuschwanstein website] favorite icon for the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection website [the favorite icon for Hidden Hydrology web site] [The short cut icon for the Neuschwanstein website] ESP The favourite icon for the Andalucia [Favorite icon for the National Institutes of Health websites] [Favorite icon for the Wikipedia website] [The logo for the Real Network Online] The favourite icon for the Summit Post magazine

200 reciprocating engine (AD 1829 +45 -55)

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

The logo on the Flinders Ranges History web page The favorite icon for the CSIRO domain [Favorite icon for the Mapping Frontier Conflict in South - East Queensland website] [Favorite icon for the The Cherbourg Memory website] [Favorite icon for the Wikipedia website] [Favorite icon for the ABC Radio website] Favorite icon for the City of Burnside Favorite icon for the Trails SA website

[favorite icon for Electric Mountain website] NLG XFO Somersetshire [logo for Swedish and Norwegian Canals] Meteora [favorite icon for the Cornwalls website.] [favorite icon for the UNESCO World Heritage Convention website.] Klementinum [favorite icon for the online exhibitions of King's College London Archives & Special Collections.]

500 etching (AD 1515 +125,-75 years)
 

[The favourite icon for the website of the Chico Mendes Institute for the conservation of biodiversity]

[favourite icon for the Trip Advisor website] [Favorite icon for the Computer Science website of Columbia University website] [Favorite icon for the Rab town website] Wieliczka Salt Mine [Favorite icon for the Polish Tourist Organisation website] Karpijlitapa

1 000 publishing (400 AH +200,-200 years)
  

[The favorite icon for Dr Garry's terrace of web-sites] Olympia [The short cut icon for the World Heritage Convention web-site from UNESCO] Alchi Temple [favourite icon for the National Parks Service (U.S. Department of the Interior) web-site] [favourite icon for the China Highlights web-site] [favourite icon for the Computers in Geology web-site] [favourite icon for the Goteborg tourist web-site] [favourite icon for the Lofotr Viking Musem web-site] [favourite icon for the Norwegian History Centre web-site] [favourite icon for the Computers in Geology web-site] [favorite icon for the Gresham College website] various ...

2 000 codex (Domitian IV +300,-200 years)

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website] The Wolli Creek Valley shortcut icon for the Glen Innes Tourism website

5 000 the first building of cities (Itasadum of First Dynasty of Kish +1000 -3000)
 

[favourite icon for the Wikipedia web sites ] Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mt Cootha [favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website] [favourite icon for the National Parks Service (U.S. Department of the Interior) web-site] [favourite icon for the Global Heritage Fund web-site] Favorite icon for the YouTube website [favourite icon for the Wadi Rum web-site] [favourite icon for the harappa.com web site ] [favorite icon for Society of Antiquaries of Scotland website] [favorite icon for the Wikipedia website]

10 000 Holocene - Pleistocene boundary (0.011784 ±0.01 Ma)
 

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

20 000 the domestication of plants

Favorite icon for the SBS Food website [the favorite icon for the Minerals division of State Development website] [the icon for a map from the SARIG database] [favourite icon for the Geoscience Australia website] [favourite icon for the LinkedIn website] [favourite icon for the SARIG mapserver] [favourite icon for the AUSGIN Geoscience Portal] [favourite icon for the European Space Agency web-site]

50 000 the domestication of animals
 

[favourite icon for the Geoscience Australia website] [favourite icon for the AUSGIN Geoscience Portal] [favourite icon for the Geological Survey of Western Australia website] [favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[favourite icon for the Greenland tourism web-site] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website] [favorite icon for the Wikipedia website]

1 000 000 Calabrian - Middle Pleistocene boundary (0.781 + 1.019,-0.655 Ma)

 

[the icon for a map from the SARIG database] [favourite icon for the Geoscience Australia website] [favourite icon for the LinkedIn website] [favourite icon for the AUSGIN Geoscience Portal]

2 000 000 Gelasian - Calabrian boundary (1.80 ± 0.8)

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

[the icon for a map from the SARIG database] [favourite icon for the Geoscience Australia website] [favourite icon for the LinkedIn website] [favourite icon for the AUSGIN Geoscience Portal] [the favorite icon for the Minerals division of State Development website] [favourite icon for the Friends of the Brisbane Botanic Gardens web-site] [favourite icon for the Western Australia National Parks web-site] [favourite icon for the New Zealand official tourism web-site] [favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[favourite icon for the LinkedIn website] [favourite icon for the USGS GMEG - Geology and Geophysics web-site] [favourite icon for the Geology Page web-site] [favourite icon for the Geology Page web-site] Lake Baikal [favourite icon for the Zermatt, Switzerland web-site] [favourite icon for the National Park Service web-site] [favourite icon for the Avenue of the Giants web-site]

50 000 000 Mesozoic-Cenozoic boundary (66 -5,+6 Ma)

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

[favourite

[favourite icon for the How It Works Daily web-site] [favourite icon for the Saxon Swizerland National Park web-site] [favourite icon for the Saxon Swizerland tourist web-site] [The logo for the New Mexico Tourism Department website ] [The logo for the United States National Park Service website]

100 000 000 Jurassic - Cretaceous boundary (145 +7,-5 Ma)
 

[favourite icon for the Blogspot website] [favourite icon for the Living Earth website] [favourite icon for the Computers in Geology web-site] [favourite icon for the Geological Society of Australia web-site] [favourite icon for the Gondwana Coast Fossil Walk website]

[The logo for the United States National Park Service website] [The logo for the Science Direct website] [favourite icon for the Trip Advisor website] [The favorite icon for the Discover Moab offical Moab City tourist website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website]

200 000 000 Palaeozoic-Mesozoic boundary (252 +2,-1 Ma)
 

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website] Girraween National Park [favourite icon for the Trip Advisor website]

[favorite icon for Journal of Petroleum Technology website] [favorite icon for LinkedIn website] Atlas of the Underworld [favorite icon for LinkedIn website] [favorite icon for Geoscience Portal website] [favorite icon for British Geological Survey website] [favorite icon for Electric Mountain website] [The Favorite icon for the ReVolvy website] [The logo for the United States National Park Service website] [favorite icon for LinkedIn website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website]

500 000 000 Phanerozoic-Proterozoic boundary (540 +96,-12 Ma)

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database]

[the icon for a map from the SARIG database] [favourite icon for the Geoscience Australia website] [favourite icon for the ReNew website] [favourite icon for the website builder editMySite.com] [favourite icon for the LinkedIn website] [favourite icon for the AUSGIN Geoscience Portal] [the favorite icon for the Minerals division of State Development website] Table Mountain [favourite icon for the Computers in Geology web-site] Hallett Cove [favourite icon for the Living Earth website]

[the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website]

1 000 000 000 Mesoprotozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary ( 1000 +200,-280 Ma)
 

[favourite icon for the Living Earth website] [the favorite icon for the Minerals division of State Development website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website] The logo for the SETI Institute (Search for Extra-Terrestial Intelligence) website

2 000 000 000 Proterozoic-Archean boundary (2500 +300, -200 Ma)

[the favorite icon for the Palaeos, life through deep time, website]

[favourite icon for the Floating Stones website] [favourite icon for the Geoscience Australia website] [favourite icon for the AUSGIN Geoscience Portal] [favourite icon for the Geological Survey of Western Australia website] [favorite icon for the Erudite Technologies website.] Favorite icon for the SETI Institute (Search for Extra-Terrestial Intelligence) website [favorite icon for the Erudite Technologies website.] [favorite icon for the AusGIN website.] [The favorite icon for Dr Garry's terrace of web-sites] [favorite icon for the UNESCO World Heritage Convention website.] [favorite icon for the GeoExpro website.] [the favorite icon for the BioInteractive website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website]

5 000 000 000 Estimated Formation of planet Earth (4600 ± 1000 Ma)
 

[the favorite icon for the Palaeos, life through deep time, website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website] [the favorite icon for the Special Broadcasting Service website]

10 000 000 000 Guessed Age for the formation of the Milky Way Galaxy (?????)
 

[the icon for the Atlas of the Universe database] [the favorite icon for the Palaeos, life through deep time, website] [the favorite icon for the Bible Gateway website] [the favorite icon for the Cosmic Chicken website]

20 000 000 000 Supposedly, when only The Word existed

400 000 years to get it half right

The gateway above has links to information or data on natural and built heritage sites. These web-sites, which do not charge for the data, are placed on the table in alphabetical, geographical or age context:

Previous coinages are listed to distinguish separate countries within a common economy, but Wikipedia does not give enough detail to distinguish Tasmania from New South Wales. Transport of technology, customs, then language from one economy to another is suggested by the Google Earth paths, listed in historical order, such as:

  1. compost.kml SA Great for Worms a geological trail in South Australia
  2. first mammal secretes enzymes and other compounds to promote the development of the microbiome in offspring
  3. an ancestor of the homo, canis and/or felis genera, start medicinal grazing and the domestication of the microbiome
  4. ft01.kml Indus River to Brisbane River a migration path for early homo sapiens
  5. greece.kml Fly-though of the caldera at the island of Thera (Santorini)
  6. Sellicks Beach children are taken through the remnants of gaciation, uplift and sea-level change; then misled by naming overbank deposits colluvium, and giving the genesis of stranded pebble beaches as uplift rather than storm surge.

Of special interest is the cells in the southern hemisphere, from telephony onwards, which have sites in the timeline for vehicle manuafacturing in South Australia. This is especially innovation in bush bashing which would contribute componets to a #LandDrone for monitoring Maralinga. Unusually, in comparison to mineral exploration, is this need does not decline. For example one of the isotopes caused by the original atomic bomb test is 242Pt (Platinum-242) which has a half-life ten times that of the estimated period of aboriginal occupation. That is the half-life, so there is still going to be 50% of the stuff lying around after that. Given that much time we can expect success, especially since South Australia already has this record of innovation. In those particular cells from the table above are links to historical records of various inventions and developments, leading to the manufacture of rovers in South Australia; but what is not categorised by the timeline is the development was for ruggedizing of vehicles or just an improvement to the manufacturing industry. From the example in LinkedIn some of the innovations still need to be ruggedized.

Was Noah aboriginal?

Can the broad specturm revolution hypothesis be extended to the extinction of the Gondwana megafauna? The original elucidation of the Neolithic culture in the Near-East could be better explained as the introduction of the mortuary house (10 000 years b.p. +2000,-2000), leaving the BSR hypothesis available as the economic basis for the Antediluvian culture but also that of the Clovis culture in the Americas. There is a summary on Wikipedia, but also there have been Sprigg Geobiology Centre seminars giving insight, including a history of fire abstracted here.

I am especially interested as Gavin Prideaux’s talk at the Mawson Lecture Theatre in 2018, raised the possibility that South Australia could be a focus for research of the broad spectrum revolution hypothesis. Putting the leading theory on human civilization back an order of magnitude, is not something you expect after a couple of red wines on a boring Thursday night in Adelaide. Turns out the whole University of Adelaide paleogeography group is working on lipids for age sequencing – what a delightful coincidence, with Dr McInerney listing “Palaeohydrology of the Holocene of Southeast Queensland” and in a geological timeframe it is no different to what it is now (except for the urban disruption of the Gold Coast).

Allison Karp has isolated the organic compounds for C4 grass fires and the C3 plant deposits previous to that, including from sediments taken by the International Global Core Program. Remains of the fire-controlled biomes contain long chain organic molecules separated by a cyclopentadienyl ring, whereas the older “petroleum” style molecules are with the benzene ring. We had a quick discussion, because all her time records have a notch where fire and C4 grasslands are not coincident, except the Chinese record which is coincident (and not Gondwana). She needs to take a drive up Mt Nebo near Brisbane, to see the conifer forest abutting the sclerophyll forest, and realise there are hotter fires again than what she has been modelling (I think it is a 1000 degrees hotter for a eucalypt crown fire just like a mine fire). Also she spoke about the role of free radicals in the C4 fire biomarker, but didn’t account for the sulphate-reducing bacteria in the conifer forest biome which may be oxidizing those benzene rings for the C3 equivalent (I am now thinking metallogensis of ferrocene to pyrite). Desperate to remember all the acronyms for the compound groups, my book order for “Organic Chemistry a Very Short Introduction” by Graham Patrick has arrived; so I am going to have to discipline myself.

How has Australian mammal evolution been shaped by environmental change over the past 25 million years?
Professor Gavin Prideaux
Flinders University
Thursday 7th June 2018 - The Ralph Tate Memorial Lecture (joint GSA-SA Division, the Field Geology Club of South Australia and the Royal Society of South Australia event) Mawson Lecture Theatre, University of Adelaide.

Professor Prideax presented a rational synthesis of the facts behind the speculation on the Australian marsupial megafauna, such as that reported in Wikipedia:

Grassland fire ecology has roots in the Late Miocene
Allison Karp
Pennsylvania State University
Friday 21th September 2018 - Mawson Lecture Theatre, University of Adelaide
What the talk is about…

Fire is crucial to maintaining modern subtropical grasslands, yet our understanding of the origins and evolution of this association on geologic timescales is limited, due in part to few co-eval records of both grass and fire proxies in the geologic record. The ambiguity of past ecosystem-fire dynamics impedes our ability to predict how these critical ecosystems may respond to the current changing climate. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a complex suite of molecules that can derive both from the burning of terrestrial vegetation, as well as thermally mature fossil organic substrates. Distinguishing burn signatures with these compounds will make it possible to link paleo-fire and vegetation change in the past. I’ll present my recent progress developing a new biomarker approach that uses these compounds to constrain the relationship between fire and grassland ecology in both terrestrial and marine contexts during the Late Miocene C4 grassland expansion on the Indian Subcontinent. Results suggest that modern feedbacks between fire, seasonality and landscape opening were first initiated in the Late Miocene. I hope further use of this novel approach will address how regional differences in fire dynamics contributed to the globally asynchronous Mio-Pliocene grassland expansion, as well as other terrestrial ecosystem questions in Earth History.

A bit about Allison…

Allison Karp is a molecular paleontologist and a current Ph.D. candidate in the Geosciences Department at Pennsylvannia State University in the United States. Allison received her B.A. in Biology and Environmental Earth Science from Washington University in St. Louis in the U.S, with additional field studies in paleoecology and ecology at the University of Queensland and the University of Hawaii. At Penn State, Allison is a NSF Graduate Research Fellow working with Dr. Kate Freeman studying isotope biogeochemistry. Her research focuses on improving isotopic and molecular tools to constrain abiotic-biotic feedback processes in deep time, in particular, fire-vegetation interactions.

Emblems and Coat-of-Arms for nations are in well-formed SVG

The Emblems and Coat-of-Arms for nations shown in any region are in well-formed SVG (Scalable Vector Graphic) format. This is the 21st Century equivalent of engraving, in that each line is individually specified in the file, it isn't just a digital scan of a painting. There are many versions on the internet but the ones shown here have been programmed in a way that the image can be zoomed into for closer inspection. Engravings by Robert Hooke, Gould and others of the enlightenment, allowed publishing of drawings commissioned by scientists like Darwin and Banks, and which was the basis for modern peer review of natural science. In modern scientific work this technology has been replaced by high-defintion photographs and video programmes.

Rather than using simplified heraldic devices, these national emblems and Coat-of-Arms have modified these original biological and lithological drawings. To celebrate the work of the scientists and the modern programmers embracing that heritage, each is labelled with the authors user account and copyright notice from Wikipedia Commons, also a link to the web page as there may be a discussion of the design. To comprehend my excitement please see:

Regions that are adjacent have common cell boundaries, regions which are not contiguous don't

In the stratigraphic table above, regions that are adjacent have common cell boundaries, regions which are not contiguous don't. This came about as an attempt to maximise the space available for text. If for instance I had used hotpoints in a geographical projection there would be a few near-invisible points on a white page.

  1. This is composed from the principle that history is periods of quiessance punctuated by change. Therefore artifacts in any archeological record are not recording changes but rather the quiet period before that change. Examples of this are the heritage building that has survived urban renewal. It is from the period before the activity. In this way the record of history is similar to a stratigraphic column. For in a stratigraphic column the periods of quiet deposition are shown as formations separated by the unconformities, that is periods of active erosion.

    Where it is obvious, I have used technological events to puntuate the periods in the table. This is the archaeological concept that inventions revise culture, and I have also found this in my own experience with geological computing: successful technologies are quickly adopted because they are successful. I don't think anyone in history has enjoyed watching their children die. If there is something they can change in their society to prevent those deaths, the parents will do it.

  2. The second principle of this table is also taken from the geologists stratigraphic column. The regional scope of the data set represented by the link is shown by boxes and member sub regions by boxes inside the outer box.

    Where I have had the chance to research a geological formation I have used a dotted line around the website icons. This is implemented a style attribute of the enclosing HTML <nobr> element, which to enforces that they always appear at the same stratigraphic level, no matter what dimensions are used for the browser window.

  3. Each table cell joining other table cells gives every boundary that occurs geographically. For example South Australia has only boundaries with Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Northern Territory and Western Australia. The arrangement of the table cell therefore describes the complete geographical arrangement of the sovereign entities.

    In comparison the stratigraphic column boundaries are portayed as separated from the intervening strata (browse the style .precambrian in the ./gateway.css file) to imply the geological uncertainty, and a heavy dashed line is used for an eon which is only suggested.

  4. The colours of the stratigraphic diagram match that used in the International Geological Timescale. These are implemented with named classes (for example class="mesozoic") in the gateway.css file on this website. I have reserved the style="anthropocene" (see the Tasman Sea cell) for what would be described as "natural resources" in the current day.
  5. This is in contrast with the class="built" for man-made heritage. Current jurisdictions are distinguished by a flag color if there is not a unique ribbon of favourite icons. Where possible, the icons for a cultural instittution also give the link to web page for the index to the heritage web-pages shown in the stratigraphy (for example [favourite in the United States list).
  6. Stratigraphic Boundaries are bracketed by the ages for the stratigraphic elements above and below (the description is given with the span element, so move the mouse icon over each number). This is a better representation of the accuracy than quoting with the precision of the defining technique. Each stratigraphic element is defined on all geological measurement, in informatics terms "a boolean AND", not just the most precise measurement. For a field work equivalent, think strata stops being one stratigraphic element when it becomes another stratigraphic element.

[The logo for Gould Genealogy & History] [logo for the Table Mountain national park website] [The logo for DLM Removals & Storage] [The logo for CHASDOR BINDERY SOLUTIONS PTY LTD, South Australia] [The logo for Flinders Ranges Research a private research service for South Australia]

An HTTP-compliant algorithm for the stratigraphic time continuum

Perhaps in the table above, to make the page more pleasing, I could have pasted a satellite image behind those hot-points, but I only wanted to show the information I had, and not have the reader focussing on a picture with no factual significance. The result is ugly, as it looks like an object model for a computer program, but it is quite compact. If you cast your mouse across the regions and boundaries you will see that they are captioned with titles.

The table also shows the Tau shaped time-space (+stratigraphic) continuum model. From at least the archaeologist's point of view, the longitude direction is aligned in the direction of time, with latitude at right angles. Longitude only affects the last day of time and so all history sits below the nexus of the two coordinates as in the diagram above. For an example, consider the scene in the film "Independence Day 4" where the aliens have flying saucers distributed around the globe hovering above the capital cities. Then in unison they begin attacking. Subsequently, for an archeologist investigating these ruins, he or she would have to adjust the time of day of the attack based on the longitude of the devastated city to demonstrate that the destruction occurred at the same instant. Otherwise, it would appear that it occurred during the previous day through the night to the next day. Then the title of the film would have to be changed perhaps to 'Independence Weekend 4' and I am sure Hollywood would never have made that film. Since setting up this table, there was the devastating tsunami in the the Indian Ocean, and this mathematical approach to the timing of geological events proved practical in firstly identifying where the epicentre occurred and then determining which islands and villages were affected so the rescue teams could visit them, as there wouldn't be the resources to visit every island at least in the time required to prevent further death.

To maintain the density of the text links, and keep the principle that every table data cell boundary represents a geographical relationship, the columns of links have been spaced or separated into groups by the unsorted list element "ul". Then by using the style attribute of "float" the columns of links occur as if they were separate "td" elements. The "ul" element is also conveninet for fading any background color (actually re-assigning the color with the style attibute) to make the text easier to read.

I started the table structure, because there was nothing else I could easily put on the Bigpond web site. I was re-assured that before Smith invented the geological map (of Britain), members of the Geological Society used tables to display lithology, I have found there are some extra benefits I didn't forsee:

A logo for Orlando Media [The logo for Peacock Publications] [A sample of the work from the Adelaide Mint] [the logo for the Australian Institute of Marine Science website [The favourite icon for GlassTerra software used to view NSW 3D Geological models] [The logo for the subscription radio-station 4MBS.] The log for Festig Konigstein [The South Australian Government logo used on the Carrick Hill heritage web-site.] [the favorite icon for the Atlas of the Underworld  website]

Authors and books about the history of mineral surveying

The development of mineral surveying has been covered by the several authors in the Name List on the Computers in Geology home page. What they have written is listed elsewhere, as suggested. I find reading books like these very comforting; as I don't get half the run around that these pioneers had to put up with. The journals listed below that discuss more recent innovation in the work.

  1. As well as the references from the recommended authors,
  2. there is also an extract of the bibliography used for the Grimoire of Geological Computing.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Explorer June 2002 - Computers in Geology special edition.
Explorer April 2001 - Computers in Geology special edition.
Explorer June 2000 - Computers in Geology special edition.
Explorer June 1999 - Computers in Geology special edition.
Geoffrey C. BOWKER
Science on the Run: Information Management and Industrial Geophysics at Schlumberger, 1920-1940
Robert DEMICCO
Robert V. Demicco and George Klir (2003) Fuzzy Logic in Geology. Elsevier Academic Press ISBN: 0-12-415146-9 [The cover of Fuzzy Logic in Geology]
S. A. DRURY
Image Interpretation in Geology. Chapman & Hall, London.
Mary-Ellen F. FEENEY
Mary-Ellen is with the Hydrographic Office of the Royal Australian Navy and a researcher at Department of Geomatics, the University of Melbourne.
Bob FRANKSTON
Implementing VisiCalc
Robert GUBBINS
Time series analysis and inverse theory for geophysicists. Cambridge University Press.
Clifford J. HEARN

Clifford J. Hearn (2003) The Dynamics of Coastal Models. Cambridge University Press ISBN-10: 0521529522

  1. Preface;
  2. Nomenclature;
  3. Prelude to modeling coastal basins;
  4. Currents and continuity;
  5. Box and one-dimensional models;
  6. Basic hydrodynamics;
  7. Simple hydrodynamic models;
  8. Modeling tides and long waves in coastal models;
  9. Mixing in coastal basins;
  10. Advection of momentum;
  11. Aspects of stratification;
  12. Dynamics of partially mixed basins;
  13. Roughness in coastal basins;
  14. Wave and sediment dynamics;
  15. Bibliography;
  16. Index
[The cover of 'The Dynamics of Coastal Models']
International Society for Environmental Information Sciences
[Cover of J. of Env. Informatics]
ISEIS 2007 International Conference on Environmental Informatics
Journal of Environmental Informatics
Geological Society of America
[The cover of 'Journal of Geoscience Informatics'] Journal of Earth Science Informatics
O'Reilly & Associates Inc.
O'Reilly & Associates have a series of books for programmers including the "… in a nutshell series"
Samizdat Press
South Pacific Science Press Pty Ltd.
Position Magazine incorporating GIS User and Map & Measure.
... other authors
... other books

[logo for the South Australian Aviation Museum] [logo for Swedish and Norwegian Canals] [The logo for the Queensland branch of the Submarines Association Australia.] [The logo for the History House Museum and Research Centre in Glen Innes, NSW]

Calendars of the World

Are you archiving pictures and other primary historical sources and worried about what date you should be using? Would you like to use the astronomical date calculator to give you a single integer for your index? On this page until about 2010 (ISO-8601), this was just a mockup on AD 1954 but I have scripted it to produce an estimate for a year from 9999 BC to 9999 AH. I thank Mr Ghazi Kraishan (and his wife) for answering my questions on the Islamic calendar.

  Enter your year: - (BC, ?H, BCE)
+ (AD, AH, ACE)
Islamic calendar, type A
Julian or Gregorian calendars
 
[Representations of life in various periods]

An estimate of the astronomical day number is:

A tower in the Plaka, Athens, Greece. Is this the Tower of Winds, used for telling of time, as shown in fig.3.10 of Richards' 'Mapping Time'?
The Geoscience Gateway is compiled by Grant Jacquier as a free service for individuals and organisations interested in computer application for practical geoscience.
Material on the Geoscience Gateway may be freely published provided acknowledgement of the source is given. Please note any opinions expressed here are assuming general conditions that will not be valid for all cases. Therefore readers should seek professional advice on their particular situation before implementing any suggestions.

The page was created in May 2002.
© Grant Jacquier, 2018